ArchiCrop: Casting light on the Architecture of Crop Yield
Crop yields are stagnating in many regions of the world requiring major changes in agricultural productivity. The increases needed to provide food security can be achieved by uncovering features limiting plant performance in contrasting environments but must also consider any future changes to climate. As the core driver of photosynthesis, light availability and the efficiency of its interception and conversion is critical to yield formation. Canopy architecture, the arrangement of plant material in 3-dimensions (3D), will determine how much light can be intercepted and so is a crucial component. However, architecture is determined by a complex number of traits and whilst the tools for its study have advanced, we still do not know enough about key features and it is known that it can be improved further.
Within this Leverhulme Fellowship, project ArchiCrop, I aim to identify the spatial and temporal differences in light composition and physiological processing to quantitatively predict crop performance under current conditions and those forecast due to climate change. Using climate change predictions, I will predict how current crop architectures will perform following changes in light composition; how the distribution of agricultural regions will alter globally and; identify key structural traits or alternative cropping practices that will aid crop performance in future environments. I will also, for the first time, identify the social and cultural preferences governing crop selection for architecture as they present a barrier to future changes in agricultural production.
CropRay: A new improved ray tracer for analysing canopy light characterstics
Current manual characterisation of the in-canopy light environment relies on access to and use of costly equipment and the associated expertise to process and analyse results. In this Gatsby Charitable foundation funded project, we will be generating a new improved ray tracer to simulate the light dynamics within in silico 3-dimensional crop canopies. Taking advantage of latest improvement in hardware, CropRay will simulate both the quantity and quality (spectral composition) of light passing through leaves. This will provide the critical advancement needed to explore how features such as leaf density and geometry determine light penetration and composition, whilst also improving the realism of light modelling approaches, advancing on previous methods.
Phenotyping stomatal morphology
Stomata are integral to plant performance, enabling the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the plant. The anatomy of stomata influences conductance properties with the maximal conductance rate, gsmax, calculated from their density and size. However, current calculations of stomatal dimensions are performed manually which are time-consuming and error prone. Here we show how automated morphometry from leaf impressions can predict a functional property: the anatomical gsmax.
Alternative cropping practices for sustainable agriculture
Improving the sustainability of agricultural systems will be critical to mitigate climate change and other adverse factors influencing crop yields. Adopting alternative cropping practices provides one way through this can be achieved. Intercropping refers to the cultivation of two crops simultaneously in close proximity and depending upon location and crop choice, can increase yields when calculated on a land area basis. Cultivating crops with trees in agroforestry systems can help buffer from adverse weather conditions. Vertical farming takes advantage of growth infrastructure and hardware to optimise plant growth, particularly in urban areas. Whilst urban agriculture, growth of vegetable and fruits in home gardens, allotments or on public streets, can provide an additional source of local produce. I am interested in these different systems, the components which make them productive and their benefits towards a sustainable future.
The 4-Dimensional Plant
Wind is a ubiquitous property of all field environments, yet how wind deforms a plant canopy and alters the distribution of light is rarely studied. As part of a BBSRC funded project, the 4-Dimensional plant developed visual tracking and enhanced 3D reconstruction methods needed to measure and model canopy movement and dynamic photosynthesis in rice and wheat populations. Joint with the Schools of Computer Science and Mathematics, this provided the first stages towards understanding how our crop canopies behave in the field and how this may influence their productivity.
Increasing crop yields will be integral to feeding an expanding population. This must be done sustainably and account for the transition from fossil fuels to more renewable resources, which may often compete for land. The increase in yields must also be achieved without a loss of nutritional quality whilst efficiently utilising scarce resources. CropBooster-P is part of an EU Horizon 2020 funded project across a consortium of European institutions to identify and prioritise opportunities for adapting and increasing crop yields within Europe and globally.
Molecular mechanisms of light energy utilisation
As part of a BBSRC funded grant to Professor Alexander Ruban at QMUL, I explored how the molecular composition of the photosynthetic antenna regulated light utilisation and how higher plants protect themselves against high light intensities. This included determination of the balance between photodamage and protoprotection in photosystem II and the role of components of the antenna in chlorophyll fluorescence quenching.
Key skills: chlorophyll fluorescence; spectroscopy and pigment analysis measurements including 77K emission and absorption and HPLC; chloroplast and thylakoids extraction; protein and chlorophyll quantification; running of gels, western blots and leaf clearing